Breastfeeding Past Infancy: References

Breastfeeding Past Infancy: Fact Sheet

References: General

Duration, Intensity, and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding: Recent Research Confirms the Importance of these Variables, by Cindy Harmon-Jones, CPM, Breastfeeding Abstracts, May 2006, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 17-20.

Extended Breastfeeding and the Law By Elizabeth N. Baldwin, Esq. (reprinted from Mothering Magazine, 1993)

Nursing Beyond One Year by Sally Kneidel, NEW BEGINNINGS, Vol. 6 No. 4, July-August 1990, pp. 99-103.

Breastfeeding Beyond One Year, from La Leche League International.

Lawrence, RA and Lawrence, RM. Breastfeeding : A Guide for the Medical Profession, 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby, 2011.

Mohrbacher, N. Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing, 2010.

Riordan, J. and Wambach, K. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 4th ed. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett, 2010.

Sinnott, A. Breastfeeding Older Children. London: Free Association Books, 2010.

Ip S, et al. A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s evidence report on breastfeeding in developed countries. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4(suppl 1):S17–S30.

Ip S, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007;153(153):1–186.

Mohrbacher, N. and Stock, J. The Breastfeeding Answer Book, Third Revised ed. Schaumburg, Illinois: La Leche League International, 2003 (with March 2012 update).

Stuart-Macadam, P. and Dettwyler, K., ed. Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives, New York: Walter de Gruyter, Inc., 1995.

Hamosh M, Dewey, Garza C, et al: Nutrition During Lactation. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1991.


References: Nutritional Benefits

See also Breastmilk Composition

Perrin MT, Fogleman AD, Newburg DS, Allen JC. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Jan 18. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12239.

Perrin MT, Fogleman AD, Allen JC. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified? J Hum Lact. 2013 Aug;29(3):341-9. doi: 10.1177/0890334413487432.

Mandel D, Lubetzky R, Dollberg S, Barak S, Mimouni FB. Fat and Energy Contents of Expressed Human Breast Milk in Prolonged Lactation. Pediatrics. 2005 Sept; 116(3):e432-e435.

Onyango, Adelheid W., Receveur, Olivier and Esrey, Steven A.  The contribution of breast milk to toddler diets in western Kenya. Bull World Health Organ, 2002, vol.80 no.4. ISSN 0042-9686. “The nutritional role of mother’s milk in the second year is inversely related to the adequacy of the complementary diet. In this study, breast milk was an irreplaceable source of fat and vitamin A. When the weaning diet is inadequate for key nutrients because of low intake or poor bioavailability, breast milk assumes greater nutritional significance in the second year of life but does not guarantee adequate nutrient intakes.”

Buckley KM. Long-Term Breastfeeding: Nourishment or Nurturance? J Hum Lact 2001 17: 304

Dewey KG. Nutrition, Growth, and Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Infant. Pediatric Clinics of North American. February 2001;48(1).

Fawzi WW, et al. A longitudinal study of prolonged breastfeeding in relation to child undernutrition. Int J Epidemiol. 1998 Apr;27(2):255-60. “In conclusion, there is no evidence that prolonged breastfeeding per se is associated with poorer nutritional status. Rather we found a higher risk of malnutrition among breastfed infants from poorer households and whose parents are illiterate and are thus less likely to have adequate complementary feeding.”

Persson V, Greiner T, Islam S, and Gebre-Medhin M. The Helen Keller international food-frequency method underestimates vitamin A intake where sustained breastfeeding is common. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol.19 no.4. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 1998.

Marquis GS, Habicht JP, Lanata CF, Black RE, Rasmussen KM.  Breast milk or animal-product foods improve linear growth of Peruvian toddlers consuming marginal diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Nov;66(5):1102-9.

Marquis GS, et al. Association of breastfeeding and stunting in Peruvian toddlers: an example of reverse causality. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Apr;26(2):349-56. “The negative association between breastfeeding and linear growth reflected reverse causality. Increased breastfeeding did not lead to poor growth; children’s poor growth and health led to increased breastfeeding.”

Greiner T. Sustained breastfeeding, complementation, and care. Food Nutr Bull, 1995.

Prentice A. Extended breast-feeding and growth in rural China. Nutr Rev. 1994 Apr;52(4):144-6.

Cousens S, et al. Prolonged breast-feeding: no association with increased risk of clinical malnutrition in young children in Burkina Faso. Bull World Health Organ. 1993; 71(6): 713–722. “Our findings suggest that either prolonged breast-feeding may offer substantial protection against clinical malnutrition in the study population or malnutrition leads mothers to stop breast-feeding. These results are inconsistent with those of a number of workers who have reported that prolonged breast-feeding is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. This inconsistency might have arisen because of differences in the definition of malnutrition used or because of variations in the quantity and quality of weaning foods available in different settings. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prolonged breast-feeding may be detrimental to children.”

Grummer-Strawn LM. Does prolonged breast-feeding impair child growth? A critical review. Pediatrics. 1993;91:766-771.

Taren D, Chen J. A positive association between extended breast-feeding and nutritional status in rural Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Dec;58(6):862-7.

Hamosh M, Dewey, Garza C, et al: Nutrition During Lactation. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1991.

Casey CE, Neville MC, Hambidge KM. Studies in human lactation: secretion of zinc, copper, and manganese in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1989 May;49(5):773-85.

Briend A, Wojtyniak B and Rowland MG. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Mar 26;296(6626):879-82.

Rohde JE. Breastfeeding beyond twelve months. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):1016.

Tangermann RH, et al. Breastfeeding beyond twelve months. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):1016.

Karra MV, Udipi SA, Kirksey A, and Roepke JL. Changes in specific nutrients in breast milk during extended lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986; 43: 495-503.

Underwood BA. Weaning practices in deprived environments: the weaning dilemma. Pediatrics. 1985 Jan;75(1 Pt 2):194-8.

Whitehead RG. The human weaning process. Pediatrics. 1985 Jan;75(1 Pt 2):189-93.

Dewey KG, Finley DA, Lonnerdal B. Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1984 Nov;3(5):713-20.

Victora CG, et al. Is prolonged breastfeeding associated with malnutrition? Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Feb;39(2):307-14.

Ahn CH, MacLean WC Jr. Growth of the exclusively breast-fed infant. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Feb;33(2):183-92.

Jelliffe DB and Jelliffe EF. The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Mar;31(3):492-515.

Shattock FM, Stephens AJ. Letter: Duration of breast-feeding. Lancet. 1975 Jan 11;1(7898):113-4.

UNICEF/Wellstart: Promoting Breastfeeding in Health Facilities: A short course for Administrators and Policy Makers; WHO/CDR 93.4.


References: Immunological Benefits

Immune factors in human milk @ kellymom

Perrin MT, Fogleman AD, Newburg DS, Allen JC. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Jan 18. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12239.

American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics. Mar 1, 2012;129(3): e827 -e841.

Lawrence RA and Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, 7th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2011, p. 153-195. See particularly Table 5-2 on p. 164: “Concentration of immunologic components in human milk collected during second year of lactation”

Ip S, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007;153(153):1–186.

Hanson LA. Immunobiology of Human Milk: How Breastfeeding Protects Babies. Amarillo, Texas: Pharmasoft Publishing, 2004.

Hamosh M. Bioactive factors in human milk. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001 Feb;48(1):69-86.

Mølbak K, et al. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau. BMJ. 1994 May 28;308(6941):1403-6.

Hamosh M, Dewey, Garza C, et al: Nutrition During Lactation. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1991, pp. 133-140.

van den Bogaard C, et al.  The relationship between breast-feeding and early childhood morbidity in a general population. Fam Med. 1991 Sep-Oct;23(7):510-5.

Briend A, Wojtyniak B and Rowland MG. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Mar 26;296(6626):879-82.

Gulick EE. The effects of breastfeeding on toddler health. Pediatr Nurs. 1986 Jan-Feb;12(1):51-4.

Palti H, Mansbach I, Pridan H, Adler B, Palti Z. Episodes of illness in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants in Jerusalem. Isr J Med Sci 1984 May;20(5):395-9.

Goldman AS et al. Immunologic components in human milk during weaning. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983 Jan;72(1):133-4.

Goldman AS, Goldblum RM, Garza C. Immunologic components in human milk during the second year of lactation. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983 May;72(3):461-2.


References: Allergies

Kramer MS. Breastfeeding and allergy: the evidence. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;59 Suppl 1:20-6. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91.

Hanson LA, Korotkova M, Telemo E. Breast-feeding, infant formulas, and the immune system. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun;90(6 Suppl 3):59-63.

Kull I, et al. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants-a prospective birth cohort study. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):478-81.

Marini A, Agosti M, Motta G, Mosca F. Effects of a dietary and environmental prevention programme on the incidence of allergic symptoms in high atopic risk infants: three years’ followup. Acta Pediatr 1996;Suppl 414 vol 85:1-19.

Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M. Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet 1995;346:1065-69.

Halken S, Host A, Hansen LG, Osterballe O. Effect of an allergy prevention programme on incidence of atopic symptoms in infancy. A prospective study of 159 “high-risk” infants. Allergy 1992 Oct;47(5):545-53.

Savilahti E, et al. Prolonged exclusive breast feeding and heredity as determinants in infantile atopy. Arch Dis Child. 1987 Mar;62(3):269-73.


References: Intelligence

Quigley MA, et al. Breastfeeding is associated with improved child cognitive development: a population-based cohort study. J Pediatr. 2012 Jan;160(1):25-32. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Oddy WH, et al. Breastfeeding Duration and Academic Achievement at 10 Years. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):e137-45. Epub 2010 Dec 20.

Kramer MS, et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 May;65(5):578-84.

Elwood PC, Pickering J, Gallacher JE, Hughes J, Davies D. Long term effect of breast feeding: cognitive function in the Caerphilly cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Feb;59(2):130-3.

Oddy WH, et al. Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003 Jan;17(1):81-90.

Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. The Association Between Duration of Breastfeeding and Adult Intelligence. JAMA. 2002;287:2365-2371.

Richards M, Hardy R, Wadsworth ME. Long-term effects of breast-feeding in a national birth cohort: educational attainment and midlife cognitive function. Public Health Nutr. 2002 Oct;5(5):631-5.

Anderson JW. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, Oct; 70(4): 525-35.

Paine BJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA. Duration of breastfeeding and Bayley’s mental developmental Index at 1 year of age. J Paediatr Child Health 1999;35:82-5.

Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1):E9.

Gordon N. Nutrition and cognitive function. Brain and Development 1997;19:165-70.

Niemelä A, Järvenpää AL.. Is breastfeeding beneficial and maternal smoking harmful to the cognitive development of children? Acta Paediatr. 1996 Oct;85(10):1202-6.

Riva E, Agostoni C, Biasucci G, Trojan S, Luotti D, Fiori L, et al. Early breastfeeding is linked to higher intelligence quotient scores in dietary treated phenylketonuric children. Acta Pediatr 1996;85:56-8.

Wang YS, Wu SY. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on development and incidence of infection in infants. JHL 1996;12:27-30.

Andraca I, Uauy R. Breastfeeding for optimal mental development. Simopoulos AP, Dutra de Oliveira JE, Desai ID (eds): Behavioral and Metabolic Aspects of Breastfeeding. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 1995;78:1-27.

Florey C Du V, Leech AM, Blackhall A. Infant feeding and mental and motor development at 18 months of age in first born singletons. Int J Epidem 1995;24 (Suppl 1):S21-6.

Greene LC, Lucas A, Livingstone BE, Harland PSEG, Baker BA. Relationship between early diet and subsequent cognitive performance during adolescence. Biochem Soc Trans 1995;23:376S.

Makrides M, Neumann MA, Byard RW, Simmer K, Gibson RA. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina and erythrocytes in breast and formula fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:189-94.

Pollock JI. Longterm associations with infant feeding in a clinically advantaged population of babies. Dev Med Child Neur 1994;36:429-40.

Temboury MC, Otero A, Polanco I, Arribas E. Influence of breastfeeding on the infant’s intellectual development. J Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;18:32-36.

Crawford MA. The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(suppl):703S-10S.

Nettleton JA. Are n-3 fatty acids essential nutrients for fetal and infant development. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:58-64.

Rogan WJ, Gladen BC. Breastfeeding and cognitive development. Early Hum Dev 1993;31:181-93.

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G, Leeson-Payne C. Breastmilk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet 1992;339:261-4.

Bauer G et al. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of three-year-old children. Psychological Reports 1991; 68:1218.

Anderson GJ, Connor WE, Corliss JD. Docosohexaenoic acid is the preferred dietary n-3 fatty acid for the development of the brain and retina. Pediatr Res 1990;27:87-97.

Wing CS. Defective infant formulas and expressive language problems: a case study. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools 1990;21:22-7.

Horwood LJ, Darlow BA, Mogridge N. Breast milk feeding and cognitive ability at 7-8 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001 Jan;84(1):F23-7.

Silver LB, Levinson RB, Laskin CR, Pilot LJ. Learning disabilities as a probable consequence of using chloride-deficient infant formula. J Pediatr 1989;115:97-9

Morley R, Cole TJ, Powell R, Lucas A. Mother’s choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome. Arch Dis Child. 1988 Nov;63(11):1382-5.

Morrow-Tlucak M, Haude RH, Ernhart CB. Breastfeeding and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life. Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(6):635-9.

Willoughby A, Moss HA, Hubbard VS, Bercu BB, Graubard BI, Vietze PM, et al. Developmental outcome in children exposed to chloride deficient formula. Pediatrics 1987;79:851-7.

Neuringer M, Connor WE, Lin DS, Barstad L, Luck S. Biochemical and functional effects of prenatal and postnatal fatty acid deficiency on retina and brain in rhesus monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sc USA 1986;83:4021-5.

Taylor B, Wadsworth J. Breastfeeding and child development at five years. Dev Med Child Neurol 1984;26:73-80.

Rodgers B. Feeding in infancy and later ability and attainment: a longitudinal study. Devel Med Child Neurol 1978;20:421-6.


References: Mental Health, Social Adjustment

Duazo P, Avila J, Kuzawa CW. Breastfeeding and later psychosocial development in the Philippines. Am J Hum Biol. 2010 Nov-Dec;22(6):725-30. “In this sample, mothers who breastfed their children for longer tended to have lower educational attainment and to come from lower income households. Despite this, breastfeeding duration was a positive predictor of future psychosocial development (PD) measured in late childhood, but only after adjustment for SES and related confounders.”

Oddy WH, et al. The long-term effects of breastfeeding on child and adolescent mental health: a pregnancy cohort study followed for 14 years. J Pediatr. 2010 Apr;156(4):568-74. Epub 2009 Dec 14. “A shorter duration of breastfeeding may be a predictor of adverse mental health outcomes throughout the developmental trajectory of childhood and early adolescence.”

Baldwin, EN. Extended Breastfeeding and the Law. Mothering 1993 (Spring);66:88.

Ferguson DM et al. Breastfeeding and subsequent social adjustment in six- to eight-year-old children. J Child Psychol Psychiatr Allied Discip 1987; 28:378-86. “The study provides no evidence to suggest that breastfeeding makes a major contribution to the subsequent social adjustment of children.”

Baumgartner C. Psychomotor and Social Development of Breast Fed and Bottle Fed babies During their First year of Life. Acta Paediatrica Hungarica, 1984. “The psychomotor and social development of breast-fed babies clearly differs from that of bottle-fed ones and leads at the age of 12 months to significant developmental advantages of the psychomotor and social capabilities.”

Waletzky LR. Breastfeeding and weaning. Some psychological considerations. Prim Care. 1979 Jun;6(2):341-55.


References: Breastfeeding as the Norm

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Press Release: ABM affirms breastfeeding beyond infancy as the biological norm. May 15, 2012.

American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics. Mar 1, 2012;129(3): e827 -e841.

The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Board of Directors. Position on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine. 2008; 3(4):267-270.

The American Academy of Family Physicians. Position Paper on Breastfeeding. 2008.

American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics. Feb 2005;115(2): 496-50. “Increased duration of breastfeeding confers significant health and developmental benefits for the child and the mother, especially in delaying return of fertility (thereby promoting optimal intervals between births). There is no upper limit to the duration of breastfeeding and no evidence of psychologic or developmental harm from breastfeeding into the third year of life or longer.”

Dettwyler KA. A Natural Age of Weaning.

Dettwyler KA.”A Time to Wean” from Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives, 1995.

Novello A, MD, US Surgeon General, “You Can Eat Healthy,” Parade Magazine (11 Nov 1990): 5.

World Health Organization. Global strategy on infant and young child feeding. 2003.

World Health Organization. PDF Innocenti Declaration: World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition. Rome, December 1992.


References: Mother’s Fertility

The Lactational Amenorrhea Method of birth control

Badroui MHH, Hefnawi F. Ovarian function during lactation. In: Hafez ESE, ed. Human Ovulation. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland Biomedical, 1979: 233-41.

Diaz S, Aravena R, Cardenas H, Casado ME, Miranda P, Schiappacasse V, Croxatto HB. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhea in urban Chilean women. Contraception. 1991 Apr;43(4):335-52.

Diaz S, Peralta O, Juez G, Salvatierra AM, Casado ME, Duran E, Croxatto HB. Fertility regulation in nursing women: I. The probability of conception in full nursing women living in an urban setting. J Biosoc Sci. 1982 Jul;14(3):329-41.

Elias,M.F. “Nursing Practices and Lactation Amenorrhoea.” Journal of Biosco Sci, 1968.

Kennedy KI, Visness CM. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhoea. Lancet. 1992 Jan 25;339(8787):227-30.

Lewis PR, Brown JB, Renfree MB, Short RV. The resumption of ovulation and menstruation in a well-nourished population of women breastfeeding for an extended period of time. Fertil Steril. 1991 Mar;55(3):529-36.

Rolland R: Bibliography (with review) on contraceptive effects of breastfeeding. Biblio Reprod 1976;28:1-4, 93.

Short RV, Lewis PR, Renfree MB, Shaw G. Contraceptive effects of extended lactational amenorrhoea: beyond the Bellagio Consensus. Lancet. 1991 Mar 23;337(8743):715-7.

Simpson-Hebert M, Huffman SL. The contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. Stud Fam Plann 1981;12:125-33.

Van Ginnekin JK. Prolonged breastfeeding as a birth spacing method. Stud Fam Plann 1974;5:201-6.


References: Ovarian Cancer

Cramer DW. The epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2012 Feb;26(1):1-12. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, and the WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. International J Epidemiol 1993;22:192-7.

Gwinn ML, Lee NC, Rhodes PH, Layde PM, Rubin GL. Pregnancy, breastfeeding and oral contraceptives and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1990;43:559-68.

Hartge P, Schiffman MH, Hoover R, McGowan L, Lesher L, Norris HJ. A case control study of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:10-6.

Schneider AP. Risk factor for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987 Aug 20;317(8):508-9.


References: Uterine Cancer

Brock KE et al. Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors for carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney. Med J Aust. 1989 Feb 6;150(3):125-30.


References: Endometrial Cancer

Cramer DW. The epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2012 Feb;26(1):1-12. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, and the WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Prolonged Lactation and endometrial cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:499-503.

Petterson B, Hans-Olov A, Berstr?m R, Johansson EDB. Menstruation span-a time-limited risk factor for endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986;65:247-55.


References: Osteoporosis

Wiklund PK, et al. Lactation is associated with greater maternal bone size and bone strength later in life. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Sep 17.

Yazici S, et al. The effect of breast-feeding duration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women: a population-based study. Arch Med Sci. 2011 Jun;7(3):486-92. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

Grimes JP, Wimalawansa SJ. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2003 Jun;3(3):193-8.

Prentice A. Maternal calcium metabolism and bone mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;71(5 Suppl):1312S-6S.

See Calcium for more information and references.


References: Rheumatoid Arthritis

Karlson EW, Mandl LA, Hankinson SE, Grodstein F. Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Nov;50(11):3458-67.


References: Breast Cancer (breastfed as child)

Wise LA, et al. Exposure to breast milk in infancy and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Sep;20(7):1083-90. Epub 2009 Mar 29.

Nichols HB, et al. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed. Epidemiology. 2008 May;19(3):417-23.

Barba M,et al. Perinatal exposures and breast cancer risk in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2006 May;17(4):395-401.

Barba M, et al. Premenopausal women who were heavier than average at birth or had not been breastfed as infants appear to be at increased risk for developing breast cancer. Reported at the American Association for Cancer Research 2005 annual meeting in Anaheim, CA.

Potischman N, Troisi R. In-utero and early life exposures in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Dec;10(6):561-73.

Freudenheim JL et al. Exposure to breastmilk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology. 1994 May;5(3):324-31.


References: Breast Cancer (mother)

Stuebe AM, et al. Lactation and incidence of premenopausal breast cancer: a longitudinal study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(15):1364–1371.

Jernstrom H, et al. Breast-feeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1094-8.

Lee SY, Kim MT, Kim SW, Song MS, Yoon SJ. Effect of lifetime lactation on breast cancer risk: A Korean Women’s Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun 20;105(3):390-3.

Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002 Jul 20; 360(9328): 187-95.

Lipworth L, Bailey LR, Trichopoulos D. History of breast-feeding in relation to breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(4):302–312.

Zheng T et al. Lactation reduces breast cancer risk in Shandong Province, China. Am J Epidemiol 2000 Dec 15;152(12):1129-35.

Zheng T et al. Lactation and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Connecticut. Br J Cancer 2001 Jun;84(11):1472-6.

Furberg H, Newman B, Moorman P, Millikan R. Lactation and breast cancer risk. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28:396-402.

Ing R, Ho JHC, Petrakis NL. Unilateral breastfeeding and breast cancer. Lancet July 16, 1997;124-27.

Romieu I, Hern?ndez-Avila M, Lazcano E, Lopez L, Romero-Jaime R. Breast cancer and lactation history in Mexican women. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:543-52.

Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Clapp RW, et al. Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. N Eng J Med 1994;330:81-7.

United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group. Breastfeeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. Br Med J 1993;307:17-20.

Reuter KL, Baker SP, Krolikowski FJ. Risk factors for breast cancer in women undergoing mammography. Am J Radiol 1992;158:273-8.

Yoo K-Y, Tajima K, Kuroishi T, Hirose K, Yoshida M, Miura S, Murai H. Independent protective effect of lactation against breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:726-33.

Layde PM, Webster LA, Baughman AL, Wingo PA, Rubin GL, Ory HW and the cancer and steroid hormone study group. The independent associations of parity, age at first full term pregnancy, and duration of breastfeeding with the risk of breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1989;42:963-73.

Siskind V, Schofield F, Rice D, Bain C. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: results from an Australian case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:229-36.

Tao S-C, Yu MC, Ross RK, Xiu K-W. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women of Beijing. Int J Cancer 1988;42:495-98.

Yuan J-M, Yu MC, Ross RK, Gao Y-T, Henderson BE. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women in Shanghai. Cancer Res 1988;58:99-104.

McTiernan A, Thomas DB. Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on risk of breast cancer in young women. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:353-74.


References: Diabetes, Decreased Insulin Requirements

Gunderson EP, et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults). Diabetes. 2010 Feb;59(2):495-504. Epub 2009 Dec 3.

Liu B, Jorm L, Banks E. Parity, breastfeeding, and the subsequent risk of maternal type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1239-41. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Stuebe AM, et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2005;294(20):2601–2610.

Davies HA et al. Insulin requirements of diabetic women who breast feed. BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):1357-8.


References: Cardiovascular Disease

Stuebe AM, et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of maternal hypertension: a longitudinal cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Nov 15;174(10):1147-58. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Schwarz EB, et al. Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(5):974–982.


References: Mother’s Weight loss

Krause KM, et al. Effect of breast-feeding on weight retention at 3 and 6 months postpartum: data from the North Carolina WIC Programme. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(12):2019–2026.

Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA. Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:162-6.

Kramer FM et al. Breast-feeding reduces maternal lower-body fat. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993 Apr;93(4):429-33.

Heinig MJ et al. Lactation and postpartum weight loss. Mechanisms Regulating Latation and Infant Nutrient Utilization 1992;30:397-400.

Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Dewey KG. Lactation and postpartum weight loss. FASEB J 1990;4:362 (abstract).

Ohlin A, Rossner S. Maternal body weight development after pregnancy. Int J Obes 1990 Feb;14(2):159-73.

Butte NF, Garza C. Anthropometry in the appraisal of lactation performance among well-nourished women. pp. 61-67 in M Hamish and AS Goldman, eds Human Lactation 2: Maternal and Environmental Factors. New York: Plenum Press, 1986.

Butte NF, Garza C, Stuff JE, Smith EO, Nichols BL. Effect of maternal diet and body composition on lactational performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Feb;39(2):296-306.

Manning-Dalton C, Allen LH. The effects of lactation on energy and protein consumption, postpartum weight change and body composition of well nourished North American women. Nutr Res 1983;3:293-308.




Additional Resources

Extended Breastfeeding Fact Sheet

Extended Breastfeeding Links



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