Breastfeeding if you are Diabetic or Insulin Resistant from Le Leche League Canada
Breastfeeding With Diabetes: Yes You Can! by Marsha Walker, RN, IBCLC
Diabetes and Breastfeeding – Why Breastfeed? from the Coastal Bend Breastfeeding Coalition
Breastfeeding for mothers with diabetes from Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, UK
Insulin resistance and lactation insufficiency: FAQ by Diana Cassar-Uhl, MPH, IBCLC
Expressing Milk Before Birth: A Tool for Use in Special Circumstances by Deanna M. Soper, PhD
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Eyal S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of metformin during pregnancy. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 May;38(5):833-40. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.031245. “Infant exposure to metformin through breast-feeding is low and is not expected to result in pharmacological effects.”
Glueck CJ, Wang P. Metformin before and during pregnancy and lactation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2007 Mar;6(2):191-8. “The concentrations of metformin in breast milk are generally low and the mean infant exposure to metformin has been reported in the range 0.28 – 1.08% of the weight-normalized maternal dose, well below the level of concern for breastfeeding. No adverse effects on blood glucose of nursing infants have been reported. Metformin during lactation versus formula feeding appears to have no adverse effects on infants’ growth, motor–social development and intercurrent illness during the first 6 months of life.”
Briggs GG, Ambrose PJ, Nageotte MP, Padilla G, Wan S. Excretion of Metformin Into Breast Milk and the Effect on Nursing Infants. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:1437-1441.
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Transfer of metformin into human milk by T. W. Hale, J. H. Kristensen, L. P. Hackett, R. Kohan and K. F. Ilett, from Diabetologia 2002;45:1509–1514.
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Mohrbacher N. Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing, 2010, p. 759-762.
Walker M. Maternal Acute and Chronic Illness. In: Walker M, ed. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 2002, p. 210-211.
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Neubauer SH, Ferris AM, Chase CG, et al. Delayed lactogenesis in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Jul;58(1):54-60.
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