Breastfeeding if you are Diabetic or Insulin Resistant from Le Leche League Canada
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Breastfeeding With Diabetes: Yes You Can! by Marsha Walker, RN, IBCLC
Diabetes and Breastfeeding – Why Breastfeed? from the Coastal Bend Breastfeeding Coalition
Breastfeeding for mothers with diabetes from Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, UK
Insulin resistance and lactation insufficiency: FAQ by Diana Cassar-Uhl, MPH, IBCLC
Expressing Milk Before Birth: A Tool for Use in Special Circumstances by Deanna M. Soper, PhD
Eyal S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of metformin during pregnancy. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 May;38(5):833-40. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.031245. “Infant exposure to metformin through breast-feeding is low and is not expected to result in pharmacological effects.”
Glueck CJ, Wang P. Metformin before and during pregnancy and lactation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2007 Mar;6(2):191-8. “The concentrations of metformin in breast milk are generally low and the mean infant exposure to metformin has been reported in the range 0.28 – 1.08% of the weight-normalized maternal dose, well below the level of concern for breastfeeding. No adverse effects on blood glucose of nursing infants have been reported. Metformin during lactation versus formula feeding appears to have no adverse effects on infants’ growth, motor–social development and intercurrent illness during the first 6 months of life.”
Briggs GG, Ambrose PJ, Nageotte MP, Padilla G, Wan S. Excretion of Metformin Into Breast Milk and the Effect on Nursing Infants. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:1437-1441.
Gardiner SJ, Kirkpatrick CM, Begg EJ, Zhang M, Moore MP, Saville DJ. Transfer of metformin into human milk. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jan;73(1):71-7.
Transfer of metformin into human milk by T. W. Hale, J. H. Kristensen, L. P. Hackett, R. Kohan and K. F. Ilett, from Diabetologia 2002;45:1509–1514.
Gunderson, EP, et al. Lactation Duration and Progression to Diabetes in Women Across the Childbearing Years. JAMA Internal Medicine, 16 Jan. 2018, pp. 1–10., doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.7978.
Riddle SW, Nommsen-Rivers LA2. A Case Control Study of Diabetes During Pregnancy and Low Milk Supply. Breastfeed Med. 2016 Feb 9.
Achong N, McIntyre HD, Callaway L, Duncan EL. Glycaemic behaviour during breastfeeding in women with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2015 Oct 19. doi: 10.1111/dme.12993.
Crume TL, et al. Long-term impact of neonatal breastfeeding on childhood adiposity and fat distribution among children exposed to diabetes in utero. Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar;34(3):641-5. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1716. “Adequate breastfeeding protects against childhood adiposity and reduces the increased adiposity levels associated with exposure to diabetes in utero. These data provide support for mothers with diabetes during pregnancy to breastfeed their infants in order to reduce the risk of childhood obesity.”
Oliveira AM, Cunha CC, Penha-Silva N, Abdallah VO, Jorge PT. Interference of the blood glucose control in the transition between phases I and II of lactogenesis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2008 Apr;52(3):473-81.
Lawrence R, Lawrence R. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Mosby, 2005, p. 575-581.
Riordan J. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett, 2004, p. 459-461 (diabetes in mother), 575 (diabetes in infant).
Mohrbacher N. Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing, 2010, p. 759-762.
Walker M. Maternal Acute and Chronic Illness. In: Walker M, ed. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 2002, p. 210-211.
Arthur PG, Kent JC, Hartmann PE. Metabolites of lactose synthesis in milk from diabetic and nondiabetic women during lactogenesis II. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1994 Jul;19(1):100-8.
Neubauer SH, Ferris AM, Chase CG, et al. Delayed lactogenesis in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Jul;58(1):54-60.
Bitman J, Hamosh M, Hamosh P, Lutes V, Neville MC, Seacat J, Wood DL. Milk composition and volume during the onset of lactation in a diabetic mother. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Dec;50(6):1364-9.
Butte NF, Garza C, Burr R, Goldman AS, Kennedy K, Kitzmiller JL. Milk composition of insulin-dependent diabetic women. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1987 Nov-Dec;6(6):936-41.